The Discourse for the Integration of ICT in STEM Education: Attitudes Expressed in Texts on Education in Greece (1984-2006)

  • Katerina Nikolakopoulou University of Patras, Greece
  • Gerasimos Koustourakis University of Patras, Greece
  • Vassilis Komis University of Patras, Greece
  • Konstantinos Ravanis University of Patras, Greece


In this article an attempt is made to study the attitudes in the “discourse” on the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education in Greece during the critical period 1984-2006, the period when the most important programme related to this integration was completed. The approach to the discourse was carried out using quality analysis of texts in the journal “Contemporary Education” through the use of a specialized methodological tool.  The results of the analysis revealed that until the middle of the period being examined, there was a strong tendency to adopt attitudes that claimed that the integration of ICTs would bring about and/or should bring about minimal change, while in recent years attitudes which adopt the perspective of real influence of ICTs in the change in teaching practices have started to increase.


Albirini, A. A. (2006). Teacher’s attitudes toward information and communication technologies: the case of Syrian EFL teachers. Journal of Computers and Education, 47, 373-398.

Aviram, R., & Tami, D. (2004). The Impact of ICT on Education: The three opposed paradigms. The lacking discourse. Unpublished manuscript, Beer-Sheva University. Israel. Retrieved from

Baylor, A., & Ritchie, D. (2002). What factors facilitate teacher skill, teacher morale, and perceived student learning in technology-using classrooms? Journal of Computers & Education, 39(1), 395-414.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity. Theory, research, critique. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Burgess, Y. (2001). The Myth of Progress. Glasgow: Wild Goose Publications.

Capan, S. A. (2012). Teacher Attitudes towards Computer Use in EFL Classrooms. Frontiers of Language and Teaching, 3, 248-254.

Chevallard, Y. (1985). La transposition didactique: Du savoir savant au savoir enseigné. Grenoble : La Pensée Chauvage.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The Mythic Potential of Evolution. Journal of Religion and Science, 35, 25-38.

Cure, F., & Ozdener, N. (2008).Teachers’ success in using ICT and their attitudes towards ICT. H. U. Journal of Education, 34, 41-53.

Ertmer, P. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 53(4), 25-39.

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59, 423-435.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Foley, J., & Ojeda, C. (2008). Teacher beliefs, best practice, technology usage in the classroom: A problematic relationship. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of society for information technology and teacher education international conference 2008 (pp. 4110-4117). Chesapeake, Virginia, USA: AACE.

Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge and the discourse on language. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: An introduction. Hammonsworth: Penguin.

Foucault M. (1991a). Politics and The Study of Discourse. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon & P. Miller (Eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (pp. 53-72). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Foucault M. (1991b). Questions of Method. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (pp. 73-86). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goos, M., Galbraith, P., Renshaw, P., & Geiger, V. (2003). Perspectives on technology mediated learning in secondary school mathematics classrooms. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 22(1), 73-89.

Hadley, M., & Sheingold, K. (1993). Commonalties and distinctive patterns in teachers' integration of computers. American Journal of Education, 101, 261–315.

Hativa, N. & Lesgold, A. (1996). Situational effects in classroom technology implementations: Unfulfilled expectations and unexpected outcomes. In S. T. Kerr (Ed.), Technology and the future of schooling: Ninety-fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, part 2 (131-171). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jimoyiannis, A., & Komis, V. (2006). Exploring secondary education teachers’ attitudes and beliefstowards ICT adoption in education, Themes in Education, 7(2), 181-204.

Jimoyiannis, A., & Komis, V. (2007). Examining teachers’ beliefs about ICT in education: Implications of a teacher preparation programme. Teacher Development, 11(2), 149-173.

Jones, D., & Ball, S. (1994). Michel Foucault and the Discourse of Education. In J. Solomon & G. Kouzelis (Eds.), Discipline and Knowledge (pp. 169-178). Athens: E.M.E.A.

Juniu, S. (2005). Digital Democracy in Higher Education Bridging the Digital Divide. Innovate Journal of Online Education, 2(1). Retrieved from

Kaitatzi-Whitlock, S. (2003). The state of Information. Athens: Kritiki Editions.

Karagiorgi, Y., & Charalambous, K. (2006). ICT in-service training and school practices: in search for the impact. Journal of Education for Teaching, 32(4), 395-411.

Kay, R. H. (2006). Evaluating strategies used to incorporate technology into preservice education: A review of the literature. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 383-408.

Kocak Usluel, Y., Kuskaya Mumcu, F., & Demiraslan, Y. (2007). ICT in the Learning – Teaching Proccess: Teachers’ views on the Integration and Obstacles. Hacettepe Universitesi Eitim Fakiltesi Dergisi, 32, 164-178.

Korukonda, A. R., & Finn, S. (2003). An investigation of framing and scaling as confounding variables in information outcomes: The case of technophobia. Information Sciences, 155(1/2), 79-88.

Koustourakis, G. (2007). The new educational policy for the reform of the curriculum and the change of school knowledge in the case of Greek compulsory education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 17(1/2), 131-146.

Koustourakis, G., & Panagiotakopoulos, C. (2008). ICT in the Primary Education: effects and problems from the effort of its application in pedagogical act. In V. Komis (Ed.), 4th Pan-Hellenic Conference. Teaching Informatics (pp. 425-434). Patras: New Technologies Publications.

Kripendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis. An Introduction to Its Methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Macleod, H. (2005). What role can educational multimedia play in narrowing the digital divide? International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 1(4), 42-53.

Miller, L., & Olson, J. (1995). How computers live in schools. Educational Leadership, 53, 74-77.

Morris, D. (2010).Are teachers’ technophobes? Investigating professional competency in the use of ICT to support teaching and learning. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4010-4015.

Panagiotakopoulos, C., & Koustourakis, G. (2005). The application of Information and Communication Technology in education: International, European and national developments. Arethas. Scientific Annals of the Department of Primary Education of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Patras, 3, 293-310.

Pelgrum, W. J. (1993). Attitudes of school principals and teachers towards computers: Does it matter what they think? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 19(2), 199-212.

Pitsoe, V., & Letseka, M. (2013). Foucault’s Discourse and Power: Implications for Instructionist Classroom Management. Open Journal of Philosophy, 3(1), 23-28.

Project Tomorrow (2011). The new 3 E’s of education: Enabled, engaged, empowered-how today’s educators are advancing a new vision for teaching and learning. Retrieved from

Ravanis, K. (2003). Introduction to Physics Didactics. Athens: New Technologies Publishers.

Ravanis, K. (2010). La transformación didáctica: de las materias académias a las prácticas escolares. In G. Pappas (ed.), In Actas de congreso “La lengua griega en América Latina” (pp. 143-149), , Buenos Aires-Patras: Universidad de Patras.

Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.

Rosen, L., & Weil, M. (1995). The psychological impact of technology from a global perspective: A Study of technological sophistication and technophobia in university students from twenty-three coun-tries. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(1), 95-133.

Self, J. (1997). From constructionism to deconstructionism: anticipating trends in educational styles. British Journal of Engineering Education, 22(3), 295-307.

Schoepp, K. (2005) Barriers to Technology Integration in a Technology-Rich Environment, Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives. Retrieved from

Siorenta, A., & Jimoyiannis, A. (2008). Physics instruction in secondary schools: An investigation of teachers' beliefs towards physics laboratory and ICT. Research in Science & Technological Education, 26(2), 185-202.

Sharma, K. (2011). The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century: ICT as A Change Agent for Education. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, VSRD-IJCSIT, 1(6), 382-391.

Spiro, R. J., & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and Hypertext:Theory ad Technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter, In D. Nix & R. J. Spiro (Eds.), Cognition, education and Multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. 163-205). Hillsdaale, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum.

Todman, J. (2000). Gender differences in computer anxiety among university entrants since 1992. Computers & Education, 34(1), 27-35.

Towndrow, P., & Vallance, M. (2004). Using IT in the Language Classroom: A guide for instructors and students in Asia. Singapore: Longman.

Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers’ approaches to teaching and students’ approaches to learning. Higher Education, 37, 57-70.

Wen, J. R., & Shih, W. L. (2008). Exploring the information literacy competence standards for elementary and high school teachers. Computers & Education, 50(3), 787-806.

Whisnant, C. J. (2012). Foucault & Discourse: A Handout for HIS 389. Retrieved from
How to Cite
Nikolakopoulou, K., Koustourakis, G., Komis, V., & Ravanis, K. (2017). The Discourse for the Integration of ICT in STEM Education: Attitudes Expressed in Texts on Education in Greece (1984-2006). Journal of Subject Didactics, 1(2), 67-81.