• Hossein Barahoei Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
  • Seyed Massoud Madjdzadeh Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
  • Mohsen Mehrparvar Department of Ecology, International Center for Science, High Technology & Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • P Stary Institute of Entomology, Biology Center, Academy of Sciences of the Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic


Aphid parasitoids belonging to Praon Haliday in Kerman Province (South-East Iran) were studied. Parasitoid species were reared from field-collected aphids, and the tritrophic associations of parasitoids, their aphid hosts, and the respective host plants were identified.  In total, 18 tritrophic associations were presented, from which seven host aphids, eight host plants and six host aphid-host plant combinations were new for Iran. Two species, P. flavinode (Haliday, 1833) and P. unitum Mescheloff & Rosen, 1988, were recorded for the first time from Iran. An illustrated key together with supplementary figures for the identification of species is provided.


ACHVLEDIANI, M. P., 1981. Fauna and ecology of aphid parasites in eastern Georgia. Mecniereba, Tbilisi, 104 pp. [In Russian].

ASLAN, M. M., UYGUN N. & STARÝ P., 2004. A Survey of Aphid Parasitoids in Kahramanmaras, Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; and Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Phytoparasitica, 32(3): 255-263.

BLACKMAN, R. L. & EASTOP V. F., 2006. Aphids on the world’s herbaceous plants and shrubs. John Wiley & Sons, London, UK. 1439 pp.

DOLATI, L., 1994. Study on the biology and distribution of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, in Tehran province. MSc Thesis (manuscr.), College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, 180 pp. [In Persian].

EL-MALI, M. U., STARÝ, P., SHAHBAZ, F. & OZSEMERCL, F., 2004. A review of Aphid parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Turkey. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 14(2): 355-370.

KAVALLIERATOS, N.G. & LYKOURESSIS, D.P., 1999–2000. Two new species of Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Greece. Entomol. Hell., 13: 5–12.

KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., LYKOURESSIS, D.P., SARLIS, G.P., STATHAS, G.J., SANCHIS-SEGOVIA, A. & ATHANASSIOU, C.G., 2001. The Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae) of Greece. Phytoparasitica, 29: 306-340.

KAVALLIERATOS, N.G. & TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., 2001. Some rare and endemic aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the Balkan Peninsula. Acta entomologica serbica, 6: 121-129.

KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., ATHANASSIOU, C. G. & TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., 2003. A new species and a key to Greek Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 50: 13-22.

KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., STATHAS, G.J. & TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., 2004a. Seasonal abundance of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of aphids infesting citrus. Biologia, 59: 191196.

KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., STARÝ, P., ATHANASSIOU, C. G., SARLIS, G.P., PETROVIĆ, O., NIKETIĆ, M. & VERONIKI, M. A., 2004b. A survey of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of southeastern Europe and their aphid-plant associations. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39: 527-563.

KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., ATHANASSIOU, C. G., STARÝ, P., ŽIKIĆ, V., SARLIS, G. P. & FASSEAS, C., 2005a. Aphid parasitoids infesting cotton, citrus, tobacco, and cereal crops in southeastern Europe: aphid- plant associations and keys. Canadian Entomologist, 137: 516-531.

KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., STARÝ, P., ATHANASSIOU, C.G., FASSEAS, C., PETROVIĆ, O., STANISAVLJEVIĆ, LJ.Ž. & ANAGNOU, M.V., 2005b: Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Southeastern Europe: key, host range and phylogenetic relationship. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 243: 181-209.

KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., ATHANASSIOU, C. G., STARÝ, P. & BOGDANOVIĆ, M., 2008. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) attacking aphids feeding on Prunoideae and Maloideae crops in Southeast Europe: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations and key. Zootaxa, 1793: 47–64.

KAZEMZADEH, S., RAKHSHANI, E., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., STARÝ, P., & PETROVIĆ., A., 2009. Areopraon lepelleyi (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a parasitoid of Eriosomatinae (Homoptera: Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae) new to Iran. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 14(1): 55-63.

MACKAUER, M., 1959. Die europaischen arten der gattungen Praon und Areopraon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Beitrage zur Entomologie, 9: 810-865.

MACKAUER, M. & STARÝ P., 1967. Index of entomophagous insects. In: Delucchi, V. & Remaudiere, G. (eds): Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea, World Aphidiidae. Le Francois, Paris, pp. 1-167.

MADJDZADEH, S. M. & MEHRPARVAR, M., 2009. Morphological discrimination of geographical populations of Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gillette, 1908) (Hem.: Aphididae) in Iran. North- Western Journal of Zoology, 5(2): 338- 348.

MESCHELOFF, E. & ROSEN D., 1988. Biosystematic studies on the Aphidiidae of Israel (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea), 2. The genera Ephedrus and Praon. Israel Journal of Entomology, 22: 75-100.

OLEMZ S. & ULUSOY, M. R., 2003. A Survey of Aphid Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Diyarbaker, Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 31(5): 524-528.

RAKHSHANI, E., 2006. Morphological Study and Phylogenetic Relationships of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Based on the 28S rDNA Gene. PhD Thesis (manuscr.), College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 358 pp. [In Persian].

RAKHSHANI, E., TALEBI, A. A., MANZARI, S., REZWANI, A. & RAKHSHANI, H., 2006. An investigation on alfalfa aphids and their parasitoids in different parts of Iran, with a key to the parasitoids (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 25(2): 1-14.

RAKHSHANI, E., TALEBI, A. A., MANZARI, S., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., STARÝ, P. & REZWANI, A., 2007. Preliminary taxonomic study of the genus Praon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and its host associations in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 26(2): 19-34.

RAKHSHANI, E., TALEBI, A. A., STARÝ, P., TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N. G. & MANZARI, S., 2008. A review of Aphidius Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Iran: host associations, distribution and taxonomic notes. Zootaxa, 1767: 37- 54.

STARÝ, P., 1970. Biology of aphid parasites (Hym., Aphidiidae) with respect to integrated control. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 643 pp.

STARÝ, P., 1981. Biosystematic synopsis of parasitoids on cereal aphids in the western Palearctic (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae; Homoptera, Aphidoidea). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 78: 382-396.

STARÝ, P. & KADDOU, I. K., 1971. Fauna and distribution of aphid parasites (Hym., Aphidiidae) in Iraq. Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 14: 179-197.

STARÝ, P., NAUMANN-ETIENNE, K. & REMAUDIERE, G., 1998. A review and tritrophic associations of aphid parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Pakistan. Parasitica, (Gembloux), 54: 3-21.

STARÝ, P., REMAUDIERE, G. & SHAHROKHI, S., 2000. A review and host associations of aphid parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Iran. Parasitica, 56: 15-41.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž. & KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., 2002. Two new aphidiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the southeastern Europe. Reichenbachia, 34: 341-345.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., ATHANASSIOU, C. G. & PETROVIĆ, O., 2003a. A new Praon species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of the Uroleucon parasitoid complex from the Mediterranean area. Phytoparasitica, 31: 19-26.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N. G., ATHANASSIOU, C. G. & STANISAVLJEVIĆ, LJ.Z., 2003b. A review of the west Palearctic aphidiines (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitic on Uroleucon spp., with the description of a new species. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 39(4): 343-353.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., STARÝ, P., PETROVIĆ-OBRADOVIĆ, O., TOMANOVIĆ, S. & JOVANOVIĆ, S., 2006a. Aphids and parasitoids on willows and poplars in southeastern Europe (Homoptera: Aphidoidea; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Journal of Plant Disease and Protection, 113: 174–180.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., STARÝ, P., STANISAVLJEVIĆ, LJ.Z., PETROVIĆ-OBRADOVIĆ, O., TOMANOVIĆ, S. & MILUTINOVIĆ, M., 2006b. Phylogenetic relationships among Praini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) aphid parasitoids, with redescription of two species. Insect Systematics and Evolution, 37(2): 213-226.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., STARÝ, P., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., PETROVIĆ, A., NIKETIĆ, M. & VUČETIĆ, A., 2008a. Hieracium-associated aphid parasitoid guilds (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Europe. Zootaxa, 1781: 20-30.

TOMANOVIĆ, Ž., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., STARÝ, P., PETROVIĆ-OBRADOVIĆ, O., ATHANASSIOU, C.G. & STANISAVLJEVIĆ, LJ., 2008b. Cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) in Serbia: Seasonal dynamics and natural enemies. European Journal of Entomology, 105: 495–501.

TREMBLAY, E. & PENNACCHIO, F., 1985. Taxonomic status of some species of the genus Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri', Portici, 42: 143-147.

VAN EMDEN, H. F. & HARRINGTON, R., 2007. Aphids as crops pests. CABI Int., 717 pp.

ZAREH, N., GONZALEZ, D., AHMADI, A., ESMAILI, M., MALEKI-MILANI, H., VAFABAKHSH, J., SALIMI, Y., GILSTROP, F., STARÝ, P., WOOLEY, J. B. & THOMPSON, F. C., 1995. A search for the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, and its natural enemies in Iran. Proceeding of 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, p. 12.